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    開關電源測試系統的測試方法

              

    開關電源是一種將交流電源轉化成所需直流V/A/W規格的裝置。一個良好的電源必須可靠、符合所有功能規格、保護特性、安全規范及電磁兼容能力等。本文主要討論開關電源的功能規格及保護特性的測試。

      
    1 輸出電壓調整
        制造開關電源時,第一個測試步驟為將輸出電壓調整至規格范圍。此步驟完成后才能確保后續的規格能夠符合。通常,做輸出電壓調整時,將輸入交流電壓設定為正常值(115Vac230Vac),并且將輸出電流設定為正常值或滿載電流, 然后用數字電壓表測量電源的輸出電壓值并 調整其電位器(VR)直到電壓讀數在要求范圍內。


    2 電源調整

        電源調整率的定義為電源在輸入電壓變化時提供穩定輸出電壓的能力。為精確測量電源調整率,需要下列的設備:
        A  能提供可變電壓能力的電源,至少能夠提供待測電源的最低到最高的輸入電壓范圍。
        B  一個均方跟值交流電壓表用來測量輸出電源電壓。
        C 一個靜密直流電壓表,具備至少高于待測物調整率十倍以上。
        D 連接到待測電源輸出端的可變負載。
        測試步驟如下:待測電源在正常輸入電壓和負載情況下熱機穩定后,分別于Min()Nomal(通常),和 Max()輸入并記錄其輸入電壓值,電源調整率。 通常在一正常之固定負載 (Nommal  Load)電壓下測量下,看其輸入電壓變化所造成電源 輸出電壓 偏差率(deviation)的百分比。


    3 負載調整率
        負載調整率的定義為帶能源在輸出負載電流變化時,其提供穩定輸出電壓的能力。所需的設備和連接方式與測電源調整率相似,唯一不同的是需要精密的電流表和待測帶能源的輸出串聯。
        測試步驟如下:待測電源在正常輸入電壓及負載情況下熱機穩定后,測量正常負載下的輸出電壓值,再分別于低(Min)、高(Max)負載下,測量并記錄其輸出電壓值(分別為VmaxVmin)。負載調整率通常以正常的固定輸入電壓下,由負載電流變化所造成電源輸出電壓偏差率的百分比。


    4 綜合調整率
        綜合調整率的定義為電源在輸入電壓與輸出負載電流變化時,并提供穩定電壓的能力。這是電源調整率與負載調整率的綜合,此項測試可提供對電源在改變輸入電壓與負載狀況下更正確的性能驗證。


    5 輸出雜音(PARD
        輸出雜音(PARD)則是指在輸入電壓與輸出負載電流均不變的情況下,電源平均直流輸出電壓上的周期性與隨機性偏差量的電壓值。通常以mVp-p峰對峰值電壓來表示,一般的開關電源的規格均于小于直流輸出電壓的1%為輸出雜音的規格,其頻寬為20Hz50Hz。輸出雜音是表示在經過穩壓及濾波后的直流輸出電壓上所有不需要的交流及雜音部分,在測量輸出雜音時, 電流負載必須具備比待測電源更低的PARD值,同時測量電路必須有良好的隔離處理及阻抗匹配,為避免導線上產生不必要的振鈴和駐波,一般都采用雙通州電纜并以50Ω串在其端點上。


    6 輸入功率與效率
        電源的輸入功率即一周期內電源輸入電壓與電流乘積的積分值,需注意的是Watt≠Vrms×P.F為功率因素(Power  Factor)通常電源的功率因數在0.6-0.7左右,而大功率的電源具備功率因數校正器,其功率因數通常大于0.95,當輸入電流波形與電壓波形 完全相同時,功率 因數為1,并依據電流與電壓波形不同的程度,其功率因數為14之間。 輸出直流功率的總和與輸入功率的比例。通常計算機用電源的效率為 60-70%左右。效率可提供對電源正確工作的驗證,若效率超過規定范圍。即表示設計或零件材料上有問題出現,效率太低時,會導致散熱 增加而影響電源使用壽命。 測試時可使用4010/4011來測量待測電源的輸入功率與功率因數;使用3310/3320系列負載模擬并測量其每個輸出電壓、電流與功率經過計算后邊可得到效率。當使用3600A 時,能夠測量輸入及輸出功率并自動計算出效率,并可設定上下限,做為合格與否的判別。


    7 動態負載或暫態負載
        一個定電壓輸出的電源,在設計中應具備反饋回路,能夠將其電壓連續不斷地維持穩定的輸出電壓。由于實際上反饋回路有一定的頻寬, 因此限制了電源對負載電流變化時的反應。若反饋回路輸入與輸出的相移在增益(UNITYGAIN)為一時 因此限制了電源對負載電流變化時的反應。若反饋回路輸入與輸出的相移在增益(UNITYGAIN)為一時 因此限制了電源對負載電流變化時的反應。若反饋回路輸入與輸出的相移在增益(UNITYGAIN)為一時 超過180度,電源便會呈現不穩定、 失控及振蕩現象。實際工作時的負載電流也是動態變化的而不是始終維持不變(例如硬盤、軟驅、CPURAM動作等),因此動態負載測試對電源而言是極為重要的。電子負載可用來模擬電源實現工作時的最惡劣的負載情況,如負載電流迅速上升、下降的斜率、周期等。若電源在惡劣負載狀況下,仍能夠維持穩定的輸出電壓不產生過高(OVERSHOOT)或過低(UNDERSHOOT)情形,則通過此項測試。


    8 電源良好/實效信號
        電源良好信號,簡稱PGSPOWERGOOD  SINGNAL,是電源送往計算系統的信號,當電源輸出電壓穩定后,通知計算機系統,以便做開機程序。而電源實效信號(POWER  FALL)是電源表示輸出電壓尚未達到或超過某一正常工作情況.以上經常由PGS信號來表示,由邏輯的改變來表示,邏輯為“1”“High”時表示電源良好(POWER  GOOD),而邏輯為“0”“ Low” 時,表示為電源實效(Power  Faill.電源的電源良好時間為從輸出電壓穩定 到PGS信號由“0”變為“1”的時間,一般值為100ms200ms之間,電源的電源實效時間為從PUS信號由“1”變為“0”時到輸出電壓低于穩定范圍的時間,一般值為1ms以上。


    9 啟動時間(SET-UP  TIME)與保持時間(HOLD-UP  TIME
        啟動時間為電源從輸入接上電源起到電源輸出電壓,上升到穩定范圍內為止的時間,以一輸出為5V的電源為例。啟動時間為從開機起到輸出電壓達到4.75V為止的時間保持時間為電源從輸入切斷電源起到電源輸出電壓下降到穩定范圍外為止的時間,以一輸出為5V的電源為例,保持時間為從關機起到輸出電壓低于4.75V為止的時間,一般值為17ms以上。


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